Hypertonia: menene shi, nau'ikan da halaye

jijiyoyin wuya

Kalmar da ake amfani da ita sosai don ayyana waɗannan canje-canje a cikin ƙwayar tsoka wanda ke nuna kanta tare da ƙaruwa a ciki ko rashin kulawa da ƙwayoyin cuta ana kiranta da sunan hypertonia. Hypertonia ana nazarin shi sosai a cikin duniyar ilimin lissafin jiki kuma yana iya shafar yawancin ɓangarorin jama'a.

Saboda haka, zamu sadaukar da wannan labarin don gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da kusanci, halayensa da yadda yake iya shafar jiki.

Menene hauhawar jini?

hauhawar jini a jarirai

Hypertonia kalma ce da ake amfani da ita don ayyana canje-canje a cikin sautin tsoka, wanda ke bayyana kamar ƙara sautin tsoka da kuma rashin kula da ƙananan ƙwayoyin motsi waɗanda ke cikin yankunan tsarin kulawa na tsakiya.

An bayyana sautin tsoka azaman juriya da tsoka ke gabatarwa yayin da aka tara shi a hankali, ma'ana, shi ne tsarin ilimin tsarin halittar kwayar halitta don samar da cikas na murdede idan aka canza shi. Daga cikinsu akwai hypertonia, hypotonia, dystonia da taurin kai.

Hypertonia canji ne wanda ya haɗa da ƙara tashin hankali lokacin da tsoka ta motsa kai tsaye. Bugu da ƙari, marasa lafiya na iya iyakance kansu don yin raunin tsoka mai aiki da motsa haɗin gwiwarsu cikin tsari da daidaitawa. Wannan shine dalilin ciwo, nakasa, da iyakantaccen shiga.

Amma dangane da nau'in, zai kuma gabatar da wasu halaye da martani daban-daban na motsi. Spasticity yana haifar da tsayayyen samfurin aibu de tsari na myotonic reflex da gazawar hana juna.

Yaya aka kimanta

karin magana

Gabaɗaya, don tantance sautin tsoka, dole ne a fara sanya mai haƙuri a wuri mafi dacewa don gwada tsoka (naƙasa ko mai saukin kamuwa), daga nan sai a auna awo.

Bari mu ga menene takamaiman jagororin don kimanta wanda suka sanya:

  • Spasticity: Dole ne a tattara shi kuma ya zama mai santsi kuma dole ne ku jira amsa daga alamar reza. A yadda aka saba yawanci ana nuna wannan alamar tare da katsewar motsi wanda sai ya ragu.
  • Rigidity: Zai motsa a cikin hanya ɗaya kuma tare da ƙananan gudu. Ba kamar spasticity ba, yawanci yana amsawa ga rikice-rikice daban-daban har sai motsi ya cika.

Dalilin hauhawar jini

maganin hypertonia

Dukkanin nau'ikan cututtukan suna lalacewa ta hanyar lalata tsarin kulawa na tsakiya, amma dukansu suna lalacewa ta sassa daban daban. Misali, spasticity halayyar cututtukan ƙwaƙwalwa, bugun jini, da raunuka na ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar, yayin da hypertonicity ke haifar da cutar ta supranuclear palsy, cutar Parkinson, gurɓacewar ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, da kuma raunin cerebellar.

Hawan jini yana shafar yara, yara, da manya, don haka magani zai cimma buri daban-daban. Toneara yawan ƙwayar tsoka yana haifar da rauni da cututtuka waɗanda ke shafar aikin yin rikodi tsawon da miƙa canje-canje, da kuma tsarin da tsarin muscular dole ne ya ƙayyade lokacin yin kwangilar ƙungiyar tsokoki da hana aiwatar da su.

Don haka, saboda lahani a cikin cibiya ta sama (kwakwalwa, bawo, ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, cerebellum), ba za a kunna siginar da aka aika zuwa ga tsokoki ba, za su amsa tare da iyakance motsi.

Kodayake yawan kwayar cutar yana faruwa a kowane zamani, mahimmancin ganinta yana da mahimmanci ga jarirai. A lokacin daukar ciki, jariri ya kasance a cikin matsayin ɗan tayi na dogon lokaci. Wannan na iya haifar da sautin tsoka ya zama hauhawar jini bayan haihuwa. Koyaya, cutar ba lallai bane ta bayyana lokaci kuma alamun cutar na ɗan lokaci ne. A kowane hali, yana da amfani ka ziyarci ƙwararrun likitan kwantar da hankali don tabbatar da lafiyar yaron. Kar a manta da gaggawa na ganowar manya da magani.

Hypertonia da hypotonia

Hakanan, ana iya rarrabe hypertonia daga hypotonia. Hypotonia ya ƙunshi raguwar sautin tsoka. Tashin hankali na tsoka da yawa yana haifar da tauri a motsi, yayin da ƙaramin ƙwayar tsoka yana haifar da shakatawa. Dukansu zasu rage motsa jiki, amma ana iya amfani dasu don ƙarfafa motsa jiki na muscular don magance hypotonia. Bugu da kari, dukansu na iya biye da kwasa-kwasan magani na jiki.

Hypertonia za a iya magance shi tare da magunguna don hana cututtukan da cututtuka ke haifarwa. Kodayake idan muka haɗa shi da aikin likita, sakamakon zai zama mai amfani. Daidaitawa zuwa aiwatar da aikin tausa da horo na ba marasa lafiya damar inganta rayuwarsu.

Spasticity, dystonia, da taurin kai

Spasticity shine mafi yawan nau'in hypertonia a cikin yara tare da cututtukan kwakwalwa. An halicce shi da sauri, ma'ana, mafi girman saurin narkar da tsoka, mafi girman juriya ga motsi na haɗin gwiwa, kuma yawanci yana bayyana da sauri a cikin iyakar iyaka ko wani saurin. Bugu da ƙari, zai iya bambanta dangane da abubuwan waje, kamar ciwo, faɗakarwa, da dai sauransu. Binciken na jiki yana tare da alamun farkon shigarwar neuron, kamar su clonus, hyperreflexia, da kuma alamar Babinski.

Dystonia wani dalili ne na hauhawar jini kuma ana iya bayyana shi a matsayin canji na motsi, wanda ci gaba ko rikicewar rikicewar tsoka ke faruwa, wanda ke haifar da haƙuri ga "karkatarwa," yin maimaitawa ko motsi mai ƙarfi, ko canza yanayin. Focal dystonia na iya shafar wasu rukunin tsoka a wani sashin jiki, ko kuma su zama na gama gari.

Aƙarshe, taƙaitawa an bayyana ta matsayin yanayin da haɗin gwiwa ke haifar da tsayayya ga motsin mai binciken kuma waɗannan halaye masu zuwa sun wanzu:

  • Bai dogara da saurin motsi ba.
  • Agonist da tsokoki masu adawa zasu iya yin yarjejeniya tare kuma juriya ga motsi na haɗin gwiwa ya haɓaka nan da nan.
  • Gabobin jiki ba sa juyawa zuwa wani wuri ko tsayayyen kusurwa.
  • Yankewar tsoka daga nesa ba zai haifar da daɗaɗɗen motsi na haɗin gwiwa ba.

Duk wata matsala, ana ba da shawarar a ziyarci likitan kwantar da hankali don ya iya kafa maganin da ya dace da cututtukan da aka ambata. Yana da mahimmanci ayi aiki cikin gaggawa don matsalar ba mai tsanani bane kuma ƙwararren masanin yana da ragi fiye da yadda zai iya yin kyakkyawan bincike da magani.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da hauhawar jini da halayenta.


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